– JSCB Ukrosotsbank – Kiev, Ukraine – SWIFT: UKRSUAUX In case the buyer is unable to pay on the purchase, the seller can make a payment request to the bank. The bank will review the beneficiary`s claim and, if it meets the terms of the letter of credit, will comply with the debt.  Most letters of credit are governed by the rules of the International Chamber of Commerce, which are known as the Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits uniform.  The current version, UCP 600, came into effect on July 1, 2007. Banks typically require guarantees from the buyer for the issuance of a letter of credit and charge fees that often represent a percentage of the amount covered by the accredit. – Maybank PNG Limited – Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea – SWIFT: MBBEPGPM Letters of credit are sometimes used to defraud banks by submitting false documents indicating that goods were shipped if they were not shipped. Letters of credit are sometimes used in fraudulent investment programs.  As a result, it is the issuing bank that bears the risk associated with the buyer`s non-payment. This is an advantage, as the issuing bank often has a personal banking relationship with the buyer. The whole commercial purpose for which the system of irrevocable documentary credits confirmed in international trade has been developed is to grant the seller a secure right of payment before parting with the control of the goods for sale. Although letters of credit originally existed only in the form of paper documents, they were published regularly by telegraph at the end of the 19th century and by telex in the second half of the 20th century.
 Starting in 1973, with the creation of SWIFT, banks began switching to electronic data exchange to control costs, and in 1983 the UCP was amended to allow the “teletransmission” of akkreditatien.  In the 21st century, most LCs have been distributed electronically, and completely “paperless” LCs have become increasingly common.  In practice, A is required to close the transaction as soon as a D/C has been issued. Only if the following verification activity shows a positive screening match will Bank A be able to stop the transaction.