Data exchange agreements protect against data misuse and promote early communication between agencies on data processing and use issues. The USGS cannot share or share data sets or data: “One of the challenges of the geostrategic community is to promote data sharing and cooperation between several agencies and organizations at several levels of public, private and associative organizations. The interchangeable and successfully collaborating field of interchangeable data is based on the adoption of guiding principles, the identification of best practices and the recognition of challenges that may include political, scientific and technological issues. (National Geospatial Advisory Committee, 2011) Note that the details of these agreements may have to balance differences in management with differences in business practices. For example, how does an agency protect its data and what access can it allow through firewalls and security checks? How will agencies inform each other if authorizations are changed? Which manager will be responsible for the specified data? Confidentiality and disclaimers: there must be a disclaimer covering the accuracy of the data, as well as a description of the data and the corresponding metadata. In addition, a declaration regarding the disclosure of information to third parties is required. This is necessary because a non-federal authority may not be able to protect USGS information from disclosure, and vice versa, because USGS may be forced to disclose information as part of a foia request if no waiver applies. Terms of access: Whether the data is online or not, the agreement must determine who has what rights to access the data, who has what rights to modify or modify the data, and what methods apply to accessing the data. Data exchange agreements are formal contracts detailing the data disclosed and the data used for the data. The manual chapter of the USGS Survey 500.26 – Domestic Memorandum of Understanding states: “If necessary, languages are included [in MOUs] such as: All data and information generated as a result of this agreement must be made available to the USGS as part of its current programmes. This includes, if necessary, the publication of the results, unless it is prohibited for well-founded protection and security reasons. Second, it avoids miscommunication by the data provider and the authority receiving the data by indicating that data usage issues are being addressed.