The UAE`s applied pressure in order to limit the participation of the current Yemeni government in the unity cabinet provided by the agreement2 because of their anti-Emirati positions.3 It should also be noted that the agreement makes no reference to Hadi, his deputy general Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar or other members of the government (with the exception of the current Prime Minister) returning to the capital. This raises several questions about what exactly a unity government means if neither the president nor the vice-president can return to the temporary capital. The first two Riyadh agreements are full of references to the stability and security of the GCC member states, the signatory states. It was only in the third agreement that Egypt, which is not a member of the GCC, was mentioned for the first time, although the Quartet claimed that the references made to the Muslim Brotherhood in previous agreements related to the situation in Egypt. However, Egypt has not signed one of the three agreements, nor is Egypt a GCC member state. The first Riyadh agreement was signed on 23 November 2013 signed by the King of Saudi Arabia, the Emir of Kuwait and the Emir of Qatar, in which all three “committed to intervening in the internal affairs of the Gulf Cooperation Council State,” “no support for dissident groups that oppose their states,” “no support for the opposing media” and “no support for the Muslim Brotherhood” and “no support for the Muslim Brotherhood”… [or other groups] that threaten the security and stability of Council states,” including guarantees. The heads of state of the other three GCC member states, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates, approved the agreement the following day. 1 “Text of the Riyadh Agreement” between Yemeni Government and STC “Document,” Anadolu Agency, 05/11/2019 (available 08/11/2019 at bit.ly/2CiQPnW). 2 “Jeddah Agreement Delayed: Government Frustrates UAE Amendments and Security Arrangements Ongoing In Aden,” Alaraby Aljadeed, 20/10/2019 (available 20/10/2019 at bit.ly/2WOWECU).
3 The agreement prohibits any participation in any person involved in acts of violence or incitement during the August 2019 confrontations. These include Interior Minister Ahmad Al Massiri and Transport Minister Salah Al Jabawani, who cannot assume portfolios in the new government. The same goes for Shabwa Governor Mohammed Saleh Bin Adyu and military leaders such as General Abdullah Al Subeihi and Colonel Mahran Al Qabati, both commanders of the Presidential Protection Brigades. Brigadiers Fadl Hassan and Fadl Baesh are exempted because they did not participate in the fighting and sympathize with the STC: the first is the command of the fourth military region and the second is in charge of special forces in the governorates of Aden and Abyan.