Eu rules on border transport were established by Regulation (EC) No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006.  Cross-border commuters benefit from an authorisation limited to the border area, valid for between 1 and 5 years. These persons have the right to stay in the border area for a maximum period set out in the bilateral agreement between an EU country and the neighbouring non-EU country. The stay may not exceed three months. Small border traffic or small border traffic is the cross-border traffic of the inhabitants of a border area. In many cases, border traffic is subject to bilateral rules aimed at simplifying border crossings for these residents.  Among the former communist states, Yugoslav citizens enjoyed great freedom of international movement. In 1960, border traffic between Istria and Italy recorded nearly seven million crossing points in both directions.  In 1977, Yugoslavia concluded 55 local transport agreements with neighbouring countries, including 7 with Italy, 11 with Austria, 8 with Hungary, 10 with Romania, 8 with Bulgaria, 5 with Greece.  On the basis of this Agreement, the inhabitants of these areas can travel more freely across the border, since they only need to hold the valid travel document to confirm their identity and a special resale and readmission authorisation (issued for an initial period of two years and, under certain conditions, for a period of five years). It is important that visa facilitation also applies to third-country nationals who stay in the border area for at least three years. These agreements may allow cross-border workers to use the following: it should be noted that, taking into account the particular geographical situation of the Kaliningrad enclave, the shape of its territory and the distribution of its population, the adoption of standardised rules for the EU definition of the border area (defined by Regulation No 1931/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 laying down rules on border traffic local at the land borders) of the Member States and the amendment of the provisions of the Schengen Convention and the taking into account of that area as an area extending not more than 30 kilometres from the border) would lead to an artificial division of that region, with only a few inhabitants enjoying the advantages of local border traffic, while the majority, including the inhabitants of the city of Kaliningrad, would benefit, this would not be the case. This is why Poland has taken steps to amend EU legislation and has endeavoured not only to make an exception for Kaliningrad, but also to establish the maximum extension of local border traffic on the Polish side (the initial proposal took into account the extension of the LBT on the Polish side to include all the voivodships of Pomerania and Ermland-Masuria).
Russia`s conclusion of the ratification process of the agreement on local border traffic is expected to be completed by June 2012. According to the polish authorities` estimates, the number of inhabitants of the Russian border region interested in a residence permit issued under the LBT could amount to about 500,000 inhabitants (Kaliningrad has a population of 941,500 inhabitants). . . .